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关于MySQL,你需要了解的

MySQL原本是一个开放源代码的关系数据库管理系统,原开发者为瑞典的MySQL AB公司,该公司于2008年被Sun收购。2009年,甲骨文公司(Oracle)收购sun公司,MySQL成为Oracle旗下产品。MySQL在过去由于性能高、成本低、可靠性好,已经成为最流行的开源数据库,因此被广泛地应用在Internet上的中小型网站中。随着MySQL的不断成熟,它也逐渐用于更多大规模网站和应用,比如维基百科、Google和Facebook等网站。非常流行的开源软件组合LAMP/LNMP中的"M"指的就是MySQL。

下图为Oracle MySQL Sharding(MySQL Fabric)

但被甲骨文公司收购后,Oracle大幅调涨MySQL商业版的售价,且甲骨文公司不再支持另一个自由软件项目OpenSolaris的发展,因此导致自由软件社区们对于Oracle是否还会持续支持MySQL社区版(MySQL之中唯一的免费版本)有所隐忧,因此原先一些使用MySQL的开源软件逐渐转向其它的数据库。维基百科已于2013年正式宣布将从MySQL迁移到MariaDB数据库。


MySQL的分支

mariadb采用GPL授权许可 MariaDB的目的是完全兼容MySQL,包括API和命令行,使之能轻松成为MySQL的代替品()。在存储引擎方面,使用XtraDB(英语:XtraDB)来代替MySQL的InnoDB,还包括了 PrimeBase XT (PBXT) 和 FederatedX存储引擎。由MySQL的创始人Michael Widenius主导开发。


Percona Server for MySQL是免费,完全兼容,开源的,她在性能和扩展性方面有很强的优越性。腾讯微信也在使用,加了很多自己定制的东西


AliSQL是阿里巴巴在官方MySQL至上增加了很多特性和性能增强。从2016年8月开始开源,主要有Alibaba集团的工程师开发,也包括来自Percona, WebScaleSQL, and MariaDB的补丁


webscalesql是由多家在MySQL方面面临同样性能问题公司组合,主要寻求在数据库性能方面的改进。2015年1月15日Alibaba加入webscalesql。


OneSQL由楼方鑫先生主导的,融合了超过十年的互联网运维、数据、应用三个层面的架构经验,为电子商务、互联网金融等重要场景进行深层定制的数据库版本,真正的Web Scale SQL,可让MySQL在高压情况下始终保持平稳的处理能力,DBA可在秒杀类场景的瞬间流量下保持淡定。


社区版和企业版(标准版、企业版)的区别

Community版(GPL协议)
MySQL Community Server 社区版本,开源免费,但不提供官方技术支持
MySQL Cluster 集群版,开源免费

Enterprise版(Commerical协议)
MySQL Enterprise Edition 企业版本,需付费
MySQL Cluster CGE(Carrier Grade Edition) 高级集群版,需付费

MySQL Community Edtion遵循GPL协议,可以从http://www.mysql.com/downloads下载。MySQL Standard Edition, Enterprise Edition,Cluster Carrier Grade Edition是经过Oracle整合、完善或又增加了新的功能,遵循Commerical协议,是不开源的,需要从MOS(My Oracle Support)下载。两者在功能上都差不多,企业版在可靠性、安全性和性能方面支持的会更好一点。


MySQL社区版

MySQL Community Edition is the freely downloadable version of the world's most popular open source database.

Pluggable Storage Engine Architecture
Multiple Storage Engines:
InnoDB
MyISAM
NDB (MySQL Cluster)
Memory
Merge
Archive
CSV
and more
MySQL Replication to improve application performance and scalability
MySQL Partitioning to improve performance and management of large database applications
Stored Procedures to improve developer productivity
Triggers to enforce complex business rules at the database level
Views to ensure sensitive information is not compromised
Performance Schema for user/application level monitoring of resource consumption
Information Schema to provide easy access to metadata
MySQL Connectors (ODBC, JDBC, .NET, etc) for building applications in multiple languages
MySQL Workbench for visual modeling, SQL development and administration

Available on over 20 platforms and operating systems including Linux, Unix, Mac and Windows.

Learn more about the MySQL Community Edition

Download Now »


MySQL企业版包括

MySQL Enterprise Edition includes the most comprehensive set of advanced features and management tools for MySQL.

MySQL Database
MySQL Storage Engines (InnoDB, MyISAM, etc.)
MySQL Connectors (JDBC, ODBC, .Net, etc.)
MySQL Replication
MySQL Fabric
MySQL Partitioning
MySQL Utilities
MySQL Workbench
MySQL Enterprise Backup
MySQL Enterprise Monitor
MySQL Enterprise HA
MySQL Enterprise Scalability
MySQL Enterprise Security
MySQL Enterprise Audit


MySQL Standard Edition MySQL Enterprise Edition MySQL Cluster CGE
Annual Subscription2,3,4,5
product-metric
USD 2,000
USD 5,000
USD 10,000
Oracle Premier Support3
24x7 Support
Unlimited Support Incidents
Knowledge Base
Maintenance Releases
MySQL Consultative Support
MySQL Features
MySQL Database Server
MySQL Connectors
MySQL Replication
MySQL Fabric  
MySQL Router  
MySQL Partitioning  
MySQL Utilities  
MySQL Workbench1
Storage Engine: MyISAM
Storage Engine: InnoDB
Storage Engine: NDB    
Oracle Enterprise Manager for MySQL1  
MySQL Enterprise Monitor1  
MySQL Enterprise Dashboard1  
MySQL Enterprise Advisors1  
MySQL Query Analyzer1  
MySQL Replication Monitor1  
MySQL Enterprise Backup1  
Hot backup for InnoDB1  
Full, Incremental, Partial, Optimistic Backups1  
Full, Partial, Selective, Hot Selective restore1  
Encryption and Compression1  
Point-In-Time-Recovery1  
MySQL Enterprise Security1  
MySQL Enterprise Authentication1  
MySQL Enterprise TDE1  
MySQL Enterprise Encryption1  
MySQL Enterprise Firewall1  
MySQL Enterprise Audit1  
MySQL Enterprise Scalability1  
Thread Pool1  
MySQL Enterprise High-Availability1  
HA using Oracle Clusterware1,6  
HA using Solaris Clustering1,6  
MySQL Cluster Manager1    
Configuration & Provisioning1    
Automatic Scaling1    
Management & Monitoring1    
MySQL Cluster Geo-Replication    
Oracle Product Certifications6
Certified with Oracle Linux6
Certified with Oracle VM6
Certified with Oracle Solaris6
Certified with Oracle Enterprise Manager6  
Certified with Oracle GoldenGate6  
Certified with Oracle Data Integrator6  
Certified with Oracle Fusion Middleware6  
Certified with Oracle Secure Backup6  
Certified with Oracle Audit Vault and Database Firewall6  
Complete List of Supported Platforms »


1 Features only available in Commercial Editions.

2 Annual Subscription: is defined as the right to use the specified program(s) in accordance with the applicable license metric and to receive Oracle Software Update License & Support for the specified program(s) for the term specified on the order.

3 Oracle Premier Support for MySQL is included in Annual Subscriptions (no extra cost)

4 Server: is defined as the computer on which the programs are installed. A Server license allows you to use the licensed program on a single specified computer.

5 Socket: is defined as a slot that houses a chip (or a multi-chip module), which contains a collection of one or more cores. Regardless of the number of cores, each chip (or multi-chip module) counts as a single socket. All occupied sockets on which the Oracle programs is installed and/or running must be licensed.

6 Non-MySQL products not included (can be purchased separately)

Pricing is "per Server", for 2 classes: Servers with 1-4 Sockets, and Servers with 5+ Sockets

For pricing for 5+ Socket Servers, contact the MySQL Sales Team

For educational purposes only. Subject to change without notice.

Learn More »
Customer Download »  (Select Patches & Updates Tab, Product Search)
Trial Download »  (Note - Select Product Pack: MySQL Database)


MySQL其他相关产品

MySQL Cluster (GPL)
(Current Generally Available Release: 7.5.4)

MySQL Cluster is a real-time, open source transactional database,MySQL集群,包括MySQL,存储引擎为NDB。


MySQL Fabric (GPL)

MySQL Fabric provides a framework for managing High Availability and Sharding,MySQL的sharding技术。


MySQL Router (GPL)
(Current Generally Available Release: 2.0.3)
MySQL Router is lightweight middleware that provides transparent routing between your application and any backend MySQL Servers,是轻量级 MySQL 中间件,提供应用与任意 MySQL 服务器后端的透明路由。


MySQL Utilities (GPL)
(Current Generally Available Release: 1.6.4)
MySQL Utilities provides a collection of command-line utilities for maintaining and administering MySQL servers,命令行工具,用于管理和维护MySQL Server(包括克隆、复制、比较、差异、导出、导入、安装、配置等)。


MySQL Shell (GPL)
(Current Development Release: 1.0.5)
The MySQL Shell is an interactive Javascript, Python, or SQL interface supporting development and administration for the MySQL Server and is a component of the MySQL Server,可以用来执行数据的查询和更新等操作,支持交互式和批处理,支持Javascript, Python, SQL。


MySQL Workbench (GPL)
(Current Generally Available Release: 6.3.8)
MySQL Workbench is a next-generation visual database design application that can be used to efficiently design, manage and document database schemata. It is available as both, open source and commercial editions,是一款专为MySQL设计的ER/数据库建模工具。你可以用MySQL Workbench设计和创建新的数据库图示,建立数据库文档,以及进行复杂的MySQL 迁移。


MySQL Connectors MySQL offers standard database driver connectivity for using MySQL with applications and tools that are compatible with industry standards ODBC and JDBC,连接MySQL的驱动,兼容标准的ODBC和JDBC。


MySQL on Windows (Installer & Tools)
(Current Generally Available Release: 5.7.16)
MySQL provides you with a suite of tools for developing and managing MySQL-based business critical applications on Windows


MySQL Yum Repository

MySQL provides a YUM software repository to simplify installing and updating MySQL products on a variety of Linux operating systems,适用于使用YUM的操作系统,比如Red Hat,Oracle Linux,Fedora。


MySQL APT Repository

MySQL provides an APT-style software repository for installing the MySQL server, client, and other components on a variety of Linux operating systems,适用于使用APT的操作系统,比如Debian,Ubuntu。


MySQL SUSE Repository

The MySQL repository for SUSE Linux provides a simple and convenient way to install and update MySQL products with the latest software packages using the Zypper package management tool,适用于使用Zypper的操作系统,比如SLES。


MySQL历史版本下载

MySQL Community Server
MySQL Cluster
MySQL Installer
MySQL Workbench
MySQL Router
MySQL Utilities
MySQL Shell
MySQL Proxy
MySQL Connector/C
MySQL Connector/C++
MySQL Connector/J
MySQL Connector/Node.js
MySQL Connector/MXJ
MySQL Connector/Net
MySQL Connector/ODBC
MySQL Connector/PHP
MySQL Connector/PHP (mysqlnd)
MySQL Connector/Python
MySQL Control Center
MySQL Administrator
MySQL Migration Toolkit
MySQL GUI Tools
MySQL Query Browser
MySQL for Visual Studio
MySQL for Excel
MySQL Notifier

MySQL open source software is provided under the GPL License.



FAQ
MySQL Enterprise不使用License keys或Serial numbers(纸质版License),可以通过select @@license来确认使用的是GPL Edtion或Commerical Edtion
MySQL client只在linux上单独的安装包,其他平台(Solaris,Windows)需要下载server


Reference
https://zh.wikipedia.org/wiki/MySQL
https://zh.wikipedia.org/wiki/LAMP
https://mariadb.org/
https://www.percona.com/software/mysql-database/percona-server
https://github.com/alibaba/AliSQL

http://webscalesql.org/



关键词:mysql 

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